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What is the impact of extreme cold on the human body?

What is the impact of extreme cold on the human body?

 What Does Exposure to Cold Do to My Body?

Air, wind, or water that is extremely cold can make you unwell. It's known as cold stress. It can have a variety of effects on you, depending on the weather, how you're clothed, any medical conditions you may have, and how long you're out in it.

The following is a list of the most frequent cold-related illnesses:


Chilblains, also known as pernio, occur when the small blood vessels in your skin become inflamed as a result of exposure to cold (but not freezing) conditions. Capillary beds are clusters of tiny blood vessels that become red and irritated or enlarge. Patches are most commonly found on the fingers, toes, ears, and cheeks. Blisters can also appear.

Chilblains can catch you off guard because they do not require a cold environment to develop. They can appear if your skin is exposed to temperatures as high as 60 degrees Fahrenheit for an extended period of time.

Ulcers can emerge in severe situations. They normally go away in one to three weeks, especially if the weather warms up. However, with the following cold spell, the redness and itching may reappear.

Urticaria (Cold Urticaria)

This disorder is particularly common in young adults. It occurs when the skin reacts to the cold and forms welts. The areas are scarlet and irritable, similar to hives.While holding a chilly drink, your hands may become puffy. When you eat or drink something cold, your throat and lips may expand.

Although the illness usually fades with age, the reactions might be severe. Swimming in frigid water might cause severe reactions. Air that is excessively cold can also be an issue. It has the potential to cause your body to shut down.


Because you can't feel it, this is tough. Skin and tissue in the affected area become numb. It's most likely to hit your fingers or toes, as well as any exposed parts of your face, such as your ears, cheekbones, chin, or nose. The exposure has the potential to cause serious harm. Amputation is required in the most severe situations (complete removal of the body part).

Keep an eye out for yellowish-gray or white skin that feels stiff or waxy, as well as numbness in a section of your body. To avoid this, make sure you're dressed for the weather, especially if you have poor blood circulation.


When your body temperature drops below normal, you develop hypothermia. Long-term exposure to frigid temperatures causes this. Your body loses heat at a higher rate than it produces it. Your thoughts and movements will slow down as well. It can be difficult to keep track of what's going on.

This illness progresses in stages. The distance it travels is determined by how long your body is exposed.

Your heart might also be strained by the cold. Heart disease patients may experience chest pain and discomfort.

Shivering is one of the first indications of hypothermia. This is most likely your first indication that the weather is cooling down. Other signs and symptoms of mild hypothermia include:

I'm nauseated and bewildered.

It's difficult for you to move and speak.

I'm hungry and exhausted.


A fast heartbeat

Shivering comes to a halt as a late indicator of hypothermia. Also:

Trench foot has the following symptoms:

Skin that is red, numb, and swollen

a tingling sensation

Leg aches and pains

Ulcers and blisters

Gangrene is a type of gangrene that (tissues in your feet start to die, causing them to turn blue, gray, or deep purple).